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The National Grand Theatre, Beijing

architect Paul Andreu.



WATER DOME

The National Grand Theatre (Jason Lee/Reuters)
Official Site: National Centre for Performing Arts




толщина титановой оболочки
0.4 м
максимальное заглубление
32.5 м
вместимость оперного зала
2416 мест
вместимость концертного зала
2017 мест
вместимость театрального зала
1040 мест

national-grand-theater-china
Photo: Jason Lee/Reuters













Здание находится в центре Пекина, рядом с площадью Tian An Men и Forbidden City в центре искусственного озера.

Вход в здание через 60-ти метровый тоннель со стеклянной крышей под бассейном

Здание стоимостью 335 миллионов долларов оснащено 36 эскалаторами, 52 лифтами, 3 залами (оперный театр, концертный холл и тетр) с общей вместимостью почти 6000 человек, множеством магазинов, галерей, выставочных залов и, разумеется, подземной парковкой на более чем 1000 автомобилей



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national-grand-theatre-beijing-02.jpg









The main structural idea is this soaring dome made of 148 arching steel trusses, which are welded in place, and are con-

verged on a compression ring beam close to the crown of the dome.

Then Titanium and glass panels are filled into the grid on the exterior made by the trusses. All these structure are connected

to a 4-meters deep cellular concrete slab base (Tuchman).

The Trusses are set 4 meters apart from the base and range to 1 meter apart at the top of the dome. The dome is encloses

by a 1.1 meter tubular ring beam and 14 “ladder-like” trusses cross the shortest dimension of the dome encloses a small el-

liptical. This allows the glass to be supported, which is also used for acoustic reasons (Tuchman).

H-section radial girders were also used to frame the clad area. The glass atrium is made up of 46 arches that are 6-cen-

timeter-thick flat plate. The components of the structure that makes up the “ladder” shape, the “Rungs and uprights”,

are up to 45 and 36 cm deep. The rest of the dome that is hidden by the titanium skin panels are made of wide flange

girdersl. Andreu did not include any diagonal bracing in the structure because he wanted to eliminate clusters. Instead,

he used chords of adjacent arches that linked at intervals by horizontal tubes that are 20 cm in diameter in the glazed

areas(Tuchman)

For seismic forces, the use of elastomeric bearings are used to separating the dome’s concrete base beam from the sub-

structure. For additional stiffness for horizontal force, the wind, the use of cross-braced bays of nine arches at four locations,

one on either side of the glazed areas is employed(Tuchman).


Page 12

To make sure that the dome did not exceed the height of the government building next door, the foundation was escav-

ated at 32.5 m deep. Diaphragm wall had to be build for this purpose because the Beijing’s water table is 18.5 m below

grade. The used 26 dewatering wells were present to pump 28,000 cu m of water per day during construction. Then, A wa-

ter-resistant concrete mix design was used for the foundation’s submerged caissons (Tuchman).

Caisons

Construction

The Shanghai Construction Group first started construction by erecting the top ring

assembled on falsework. Three 10-m-long sections were assembled on the ground

and lifted into place by crane (Tuchman).

To limit stresses caused during the construction of the building, base plates were set on

rockers and fully fixed later (Tuchman).

To ensure that the final shape matched Andreu’s expectations, SETEC computed how

the dome would deflect progressively as it took shape after the temporary supports were removed. It recommended pre-

cambering the truss elements because under self weight alone, deflection was great, up to 23 cm (Tuchman).

Precamber the steel in the top rings to solve the deflection and height problem. Connections were changed from flange

bolts to welded tubes (Tuchman).

“As built, hollow steel hemispheres welded to the uprights accommodate the changing connecting angles between tubes

and arches. Short cast steel end sections of bracing tubes, with cruciform cross sections, are welded to the hemispheres.

Middle tube sections are welded to the castings, via telescopic joints, allowing length adjustments to be made.”

-article Beijing’s National Grand Theatre Transforms the City scape

Titanium panels, which are a sandwich of titanium, silicon carbide and stainless steel on an aluminum alloy frame made by

Mitsubishi Chemical Functional Products Inc. of Japan are designed to. They are clamped to waterproof panels underneath

made of aluminum, magnesium and manganese alloy, which are fixed to 2-millimeter-thick steel plates. There were about

20,000 cladding panels, which came in 6,250 different sizes to accommodate the curvature of the elliptical dome (Tuch-

man).

To protect the structure from storms, a network of 5,000 lightning rods was installed along the tracks that carry cleaning

equipment (Tuchman).





They ended up using titanium panels,

which are a sandwich of titanium, silicon carbide and stainless steel on an

aluminum alloy frame made by Mitsubishi Chemical Functional Products Inc. of

Japan(Tuchman). They are clamped to waterproof panels underneath made

of aluminum, magnesium and manganese alloy, which are fixed to 2-millime-

ter-thick steel plates (Janice). There were about 20,000 cladding panels, which

came in 6,250 different sizes to accommodate the curvature of the elliptical

dome. To protect the structure from storms, a network of 5,000 lightning rods

was installed along the tracks that carry cleaning equipment (Tuchman)


arches that are 6-centimeter-thick flat plate. This reduced the visibility of

Подробнее читать здесь http://www.daapspace.daap.uc.edu/~larsongr/Larsonline/BldgIndx+76_files/ChinaTheater.pdf

the framing from the exterior. The components of the structure that makes

up the “ladder” shape, the “Rungs and uprights”, are up to 45 and 36

cm deep. The rest of the dome that is hidden by the titanium skin panels

are made of wide flange girders, which is more economical. Andreu did

not include any diagonal bracing in the structure because he wanted to

eliminate clusters. Instead, he used chords of adjacent arches that linked

at intervals by horizontal tubes that are 20 cm in diameter in the glazed

areas (Tuchman). To accomplish all this, lots of cutting and welding on the

site were necessary. More than 4,000 workers were on site to complete the

construction. This is one of the most costly aspect of the project(Tuchman).





http://www.archdaily.com/1218/national-grand-theater-of-china-paul-andreu/

http://www.daapspace.daap.uc.edu/~larsongr/Larsonline/BldgIndx+76_files/ChinaTheater.pdf






titanium panels http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6720089.html



.

Tags: architecture, ~china
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