(Andersonville National Historic Site - Camp Sumter)
лагерь для военнопленных во время Гражданской войны в США, находился в штате Джорджия.
Питание, условия проживания и отношение охраны к пленникам было такое, что ежедневно умирало свыше 100 человек (из 33-х тысяч военнопленных).
Лагерь просуществовал полгода, за это время в нем умерли свыше 13 тысяч человек (из общего количества прошедших через лагерь за это время 45-52 тысяч человек)
В мае 1865 года в журнале «Harper's Weekly» были опубликованы фотографии из Андерсонвилля.
Issuing Rations in Andersonville Prison
Rations actually were issued in Andersonville Prison, as attested by this photograph, in spite of a popular impression to the contrary. The distribution of rations was practically the only event in the prisoner's life save for the temporary excitement of attempted escapes. Even death itself was often regarded with indifference. Life became one monotonous routine. Breakfast over, the prisoners waited for dinner; dinner rapidly disposed of, they began to wait for breakfast again. Seldom were more than two meals served in any prison. The determination to escape held first place with thousands. Like the man with a "system" at Monte Carlo, such visionaries were always devising fantastic plans which "could not fail" to give them their liberty. The passion for gambling was even stronger in prison. Even at Andersonville captives staked their food, their clothing, their blankets, their most precious belongings. To many, some such excitement was a necessary stimulant I without which they might have died of monotony and despair.
Hunting Roots for Firewood — Andersonville Prisoners in 1864
In this photograph of Andersonville Prison, the prisoners are searching along the bank of the sluggish stream. for roots with which to boil "coffee." Here, as at Salisbury and other prisons, organized bands preyed upon the weak and wealthy. Wealth in this connection implies the possession of a little money, a camp kettle, a blanket, or an overcoat, which led to displays of extreme cupidity. The plutocrat owning a skillet or a tin pail might gain greater riches by charging rent. Perhaps he claimed a share of everything cooked, or else might demand a button, a pin, a sheet of paper, a chew of tobacco, or other valuable consideration. These were some of the prison standards of value. There were traders, speculators, and business men in the prisons, as well as the improvident. Even in Andersonville, there were prisoners who kept restaurants and wood-yards. Hundreds peddled articles of food and drink that they had managed to procure. Another diversion was tunneling, an occupation which served to pass the time even when it was discovered by the guards, which was true of the majority of such attempts to escape. The great difficulty in all prisons was the necessity of getting through the twenty-four hours without yielding to fatal despair.
Andersonville Exactly as it Looked from the Stockade, August 17, 1864
The taking of these remarkable photographs was witnessed by C. W. Reynolds, Ninety-second Illinois Infantry. Describing himself as a former "star boarder at Andersonville," he writes to the editors of this HISTORY: "I was a prisoner of war in that place during the whole summer of '64, and I well remember seeing a photographer with his camera in one of the sentinel-boxes near the south gate during July or August, trying to take a picture of the interior of the prison. I have often wondered in later years what success this photographer had and why the public had never had an opportunity to see a genuine photograph of Andersonville Prison.
Close to the "Dead—Line" at Andersonville
The officers in charge of this prison lived in constant dread of an uprising among the prisoners. At one time less than twenty-three hundred effectives, almost all of them raw militia and generally inefficient, were guarding thirty-two thousand prisoners. The order to shoot without hesitation any prisoner crossing the “dead-line," which was maintained in all stockade prisons North and South, was a matter of vital necessity here when the prisoners so far outnumbered the guards. This condition of affairs is what gave rise to the famous order of General J. H. Winder for the battery of artillery on duty at Andersonville to open on the stockade should notice be received that any approaching Federal forces from Sherman's army were within seven miles.
Andersonville 1864 Huts Built Upon The "Dead–Line" Itself
This view of Andersonville Prison, taken from the northeast angle of the stockade in the summer of 1864, gives some idea of its crowding and discomfort. The photographer had reached a sentry-box on the stockade near the stream, from which the ground sloped in both directions. On the right perches another sentry-box from which a rifle may flash at any instant–for the rail supported by posts in the foreground is the famous "dead-line," across which it was death to pass. So accustomed to all this had the prisoners become, in the filth and squalor and misery engendered by congestion, which finally left but thirty-five square feet of room (a space seven feet by five) to every man, that even the dead-line itself is used as a support for some of the prisoners' tents. Since plenty of room appears farther back in this picture, it would seem that the guards here were reasonably careful not to shoot without provocation–which, as official orders of the time complained, they sometimes were not in Point Lookout, Camp Douglas, and other prisons. General John H. Winder and Captain Henry Wirz were in constant terror of an uprising in force of maddened prisoners, and the rule was inexorable. Inside the line are huts of every description. Some few are built of boughs of trees, but for the most part they are strips of cloth or canvas, old blankets, even a ragged coat to keep off the fierce rays of the ruthless sun. The shelters in front are partly underground, since the blanket was not large enough to cover the greater space. Some in the middle are simply strips of cloth upon poles.
Burying the Dead at Andersonville, Summer of 1864
The highest death-rate at Andersonville Prison, Georgia, from disease, insufficient food, and the shooting of prisoners who crossed the "dead-line" was one hundred and twenty-seven in a day, or one every eleven minutes. The dead men were hastily packed in carts and hurried out to the burial ground by burial squads composed of prisoners who volunteered gladly for this work, since it enabled them to get out into the fresh air. Trenches four feet deep were waiting, and the bodies were interred side by side without coffins. This haste was necessary to protect the living from the pollution of the air by rapidly decomposing bodies under the hot Southern sun.
Никто не был наказан, кроме коменданта лагеря Генри Вирца (Henry Wirz), которого казнили через повешение.
На месте бывшего концлагеря сегодня расположен город Фицджеральд; место захоронения умерших заключённых лагеря является военным кладбищем
The Photographic History of the Civil War http://www.pddoc.com/photohistory/v7/index.html